تمامی مطالب مطابق قوانین جمهوری اسلامی ایران میباشد.درصورت مغایرت از گزارش پست استفاده کنید.

جستجو

کانال خرید و فروش پرنده

Imam Khomeini’s Biography

    In his historical letter he wrote: "It is clear to everyone that Communism should henceforth be sought in world museums of political history.5;">Imam Khomeini became a Marja in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.

    Death and funeral

    Family and descendants

    In early 1989, Imam Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the killing of Salman Rushdie, an Indian-born British author.khamenei. His now well-known book, Kashf-e Asrar (Discovery of Secrets) was a point by point refutation of Asrar-e Hezar Saleh (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran's leading anti-clerical historian, Ahmad Kasravi.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/281. He believed that the government was an un-Islamic and illegitimate institution usurping the legitimate authority of the supreme religious leader (Faqih), who should rule as both the spiritual and temporal guardian of the Muslim community (Umma).

    On February 11, Imam Khomeini declared a provisional government. The Ulama instigated anti-government riots throughout the country. Also monarchs didn't enforce religious rules which restricted or threatened religious life and institutions and defended the Shia territory of Iran.5;">In January 1963, the Shah announced a six-point program of reform called the White Revolution, an American-inspired package of measures designed to give his regime a liberal and progressive facade.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1. In it, he listed the various ways in which the Shah allegedly had violated the Constitution, condemned the spread of moral corruption in the country, and accused the Shah of comprehensive submission to America and Israel.5;">Imam Khomeini adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist would insure Sharia was properly followed (Velayat-e Faqih).3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.

    Imam KhomeiniInterpretation of Dawn Pray

  • Life in exile

    Forty Hadiths (Forty Traditions)  

  • Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah KhameneiImam Khomeini's definition of democracy existed within an Islamic framework. Imam Khomeini issued on January 22, 1963 a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. Cassette copies of his lectures fiercely denouncing the Shah as, for example, "the Jewish agent, the American snake whose head must be smashed with a stone," became common items on the markets of Iran, helped to demythologize the power and dignity of the Shah and his reign.5;">This system of clerical rule is necessary to prevent injustice: corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam and Sharia law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non-Muslim foreign powers.5;">During November of 1964, Imam Khomeini made a denunciation of both the Shah and the United States, this time in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted to American military personnel in Iran by the Shah. Later in October 1965 he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayed until being forced to leave in 1978, after then-Vice President Saddam Hossein forced him out (the two countries would fight a bitter eight year war 1980-1988 only a year after the beginning of Imam Khomeini’s leadership in Iran and the start of Saddam Hussein’s term in Iraq) after which he went to Neauphle le Château in France.

    Imam Khomeini first became politically active in 1962. A combination of fierce patriot resistance by Iranians and military incompetence by Iraqi forces soon stalled the Iraqi advance and by early 1982 Iran regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion.5;">Family and early years

    Early Political Activity

    Opposition to White Revolution

    In a speech given to a huge crowd on the first day of returning to Iran, Imam Khomeini attacked the government of Shapoor Bakhtiar promising "I shall punch their teeth in. Imam Khomeini summoned a meeting of his colleagues (other Ayatollahs) in Qom to press upon them the necessity of opposing the Shah's plans. His last will and testament largely focuses on this line of thought, encouraging both the general Iranian populace, the lower economic classes in particular, and the clergy to maintain their commitment to fulfilling Islamic revolutionary ideals.5;">Imam Khomeini intended to reconstruct Muslim unity and solidarity, so he declared the birth week of Prophet of Islam (the week between 12th to 17th of Rabi'al-Awwal in Islamic Hegira calendar) as the Unity Week. Imam Khomeini also called for unity between Sunni and Shia Muslims (Sunni Muslims are the largest religious minority in Iran).

    Imam KhomeiniLife under Imam Khomeini

    Since Sharia, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia (Islamic jurists are such people), and that the country's ruler should be a faqih who "surpasses all others in knowledge" of Islamic law and justice, as well as having intelligence and administrative ability."

    Adab-e Salat (The Disciplines of Prayers)       

  • Following Imam Khomeini’s demise, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei came to be selected on June 4, 1989 by the Assembly of Experts to be his successor, in accordance with the Constitution.5;">Iran-Iraq War

    In early 1970 Imam Khomeini gave a lecture series in Najaf on Islamic Government which later was published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (velayat-e faqih)."

    Ulama) who felt keenly threatened.5;">As the costs of the eight-year war mounted, Imam Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations.5;">Although outside powers supplied arms to both sides during the war, the West (America in particular) became alarmed by the possibility of the Islamic Revolution spreading throughout the oil-exporting Persian Gulf oil and began to supply Iraq with whatever help it needed.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.5;">Jihad-e Akbar (The Greater Struggle)

  • Imam KhomeiniReturn to Iran

    With what many believe was the encouragement of the United States, Saudi Arabia and other countries, Iraq soon launched a full scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran-Iraq War (September 1980 - August 1988). He was keenly interested in philosophy and ethics.5;">A modified form of this Velayat-e Faqih system was adopted after Imam Khomeini and his followers took power, and he became the Islamic Republic's first "Guardian" or Grand Leader.5;"> 

    Imam KhomeiniIn this time he could represent his religious-political ideas openly.5;">Imam KhomeiniImam Ayatollah Seyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was a Muslim cleric and Marja, and the political leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran which overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/279. Rule by monarchs and/or assemblies of "those claiming to be representatives of the majority of the people" (i. elected parliaments and legislatures) have been proclaimed "wrong" by Islam unless approved by the faqih.5;">Only two weeks after the Shah fled Iran on January 16, 1979, Imam Khomeini returned to Iran triumphantly, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, invited by the anti-Shah revolution which was already in progress. At the age of six he began to study the Quran, Islam's holy book.

    Imam Khomeini expressed support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; in Sahifeh Nour (Vol. Imam Khomeini was kept under house arrest for 8 months and was released in 1964. He viewed certain elements of Western culture as being inherently decadent and a corrupting influence upon the youth.ir/d/2015/09/14/3/261. As the war ended, the struggles among the clergy resumed and Imam Khomeini’s health began to decline. The elder son, Mostafa, was murdered in 1977 while in exile with his father in Najaf, Iraq and SAVAK (the Imperial-era secret police) was accused of his death by Imam Khomeini. Initially, he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964, where he stayed in the city of Bursa for less than a year.5;">Rushdie Fatwa

    Imam Khomeini led an ascetic lifestyle, being deeply interested in mysticism, and was against the accumulation of land and wealth by the clergy. Imam Khomeini was also a highly-influential and innovative Islamic political theorist, most noted for his development of the theory of velayat-e faqih, the "guardianship of the jurisconsult. More than 10 million people from across the country attended Imam Khomeini’s funeral to form one of the largest ever funerals in the world. The following year, Ayatollah Haeri-Yazdi transferred the Islamic seminary to the holy city of Qom, and invited his students to follow.

    Imam Khomeini's father was murdered when he was five months old, and he was raised by his mother and one of his aunts.jpg" width="640" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

    Ruhollah Mousavi was born to Ayatollah Seyyed Mostafa Musavi and Hajieh Agha Khanum, also called Hajar, in the town of Khomein, about 300 kilometers south of the capital Tehran, Iran, possibly on May 17, 1900 or September 24, 1902.5;">Grand Leader of Islamic Republic of Iran

    • Works:

      • Relationship with other Islamic nations

        Saddam Hussein, Iraq's secular Arab nationalist Ba'athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran's weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran's adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan and undermine attempts by Iranian Islamic revolutionaries to incite the Shia majority of his country.5;">Imam Khomeini spent over 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq. When the White Revolution proclaimed by the Shah's government in Iran called for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women, profit sharing in industry, and an anti-illiteracy campaign in the nation's schools.

        Introduction

        Hajj

.khamenei.5;">Logically, in the 1970s, as contrasted with the 1940s, he no longer accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906-1907, an idea that was clearly evidenced by his book Kashf-e Asrar.jpg" width="640" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

Conservative estimates put the welcoming crowd of Iranians at least three million.5;">Imam Khomeini believed that Iran should strive towards self-reliance.5;">Many of Imam Khomeini's political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution.5;">But because of Islamic ideology of Islamic Republic of Iran, most rulers of other Muslim nations turned against him and supported Iraq in the imposed war against Iran, even though most of Islamic parties and organizations supported his idea.5;">Imam Khomeini was considered a Marja-e taqlid to many Muslims, and in Iran was officially addressed as Imam rather than Grand Ayatollah; his supporters adhere to this convention.

Although during this scholarly phase of his life Imam Khomeini was not politically active, the nature of his studies, teachings, and writings revealed that he firmly believed from the beginning in political activism by clerics.5;">

 

In the meantime, however, Imam Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.5;">Imam KhomeiniIn December 1988 (before the fall of the Berlin Wall), Ayatollah Imam Khomeini sent a letter to USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev predicting the fall of Communism and inviting him to study and research Islam.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.5;">Early Years

In 1921, Imam Khomeini commenced his studies in Arak.5;"> 

Also this was a turning point in political viewpoint of Islam. Imam Khomeini himself became instituted as the Grand Leader for life, and officially decreed as the "Leader of the Revolution.

Interpretation of Forces of Reason and Negligence Tradition 

  • Opposition to capitulation

    Life for religious minorities has been mixed under Imam Khomeini and his successors. Though Rushdie publicly apologized, the fatwa was not revoked, Imam Khomeini explaining that "even if Salman Rushdie repents and becomes the most pious man of all time, it is incumbent on every Muslim to employ everything he has got, his life and wealth, to send him to Hell.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.2em; margin: 0px; position: relative; padding: 12px;'>Imam Khomeini’s Biography

    Interpretation of Surah Fatihah

  • After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Imam Khomeini died of cancer on Saturday, June 3, 1989, at the age of 89. This was above all a hegemonic project intended to portray the Shah as a revolutionary leader through the utilization of social and historical myths reinterpreted through the prism of contemporary, often conflicting ideological constructs, such as nationalism and modernism.jpg" width="640" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

    Tahrir al-Wasilah

  • Under Imam Khomeini's rule, Sharia (Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women. Shia clergies had advised them to be just and obey Ja'fari jurisprudence.5;">Letter to Mikhail S. Imam Khomeini's maternal grandfather was Mirza Ahmad Mojtahed-e Khonsari, a high-ranking cleric in central Iran whose Fatwa for banning usage of Tobacco in opposition to a monopoly granted by Shah to a British company, led to cancellation of the concession.5;"> 

    Imam KhomeiniFollowing Imam Khomeini's public denunciation of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi as a "wretched miserable man" and his arrest, on June 5, 1963 (Khordad 15, on the Iranian calendar), three days of major riots erupted throughout Iran with nearly 400 killed. Women had to cover their hair, and men were not allowed to wear shorts. When Imam Khomeini was on plane on his way to Iran after many years in exile, a reporter, Peter Jennings asked him: "What do you feel?" and surprisingly Imam Khomeini answered "Nothing!"

    Imam Khomeini's grandson Seyyed Hassan Khomeini, son of the late Seyyed Ahmad Khomeini, is also a cleric and the trustee of Imam Khomeini's shrine. Third, he was the first Iranian cleric to try to refute the outspoken advocacy of secularism in the 1940s.

    Establishment of new government

    Imam Khomeini

    Imam Khomeini
  • In 1929, Imam Khomeini married Batol Saqafi Khomeini, the daughter of a cleric in Tehran.5;">As protest grew, so did Imam Khomeini’s profile and importance.5;"> 

    That the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God (Sharia), which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life.5;">Serr al-Salat (Secrets of Prayers)

  • Political thought and legacy

    Velayat-e Faqih

  •  

    گزارش پست ]

    منبع
    برچسب ها :

    , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

  • آمار امروز چهار شنبه 22 آذر 1396

    • تعداد وبلاگ :55489
    • تعداد مطالب :184690
    • بازدید امروز :35732
    • بازدید داخلی :630
    • کاربران حاضر :41
    • رباتهای جستجوگر:104
    • همه حاضرین :145

    تگ های برتر امروز

    تگ های برتر