تمامی مطالب مطابق قوانین جمهوری اسلامی ایران میباشد.درصورت مغایرت از گزارش پست استفاده کنید.

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کانال خرید و فروش پرنده

Imam Khomeini’s Biography

    When the White Revolution proclaimed by the Shah's government in Iran called for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women, profit sharing in industry, and an anti-illiteracy campaign in the nation's schools." After assuming power, Islam was made the basis of Iran's new constitution and obedience to Islamic laws made compulsory. As the war ended, the struggles among the clergy resumed and Imam Khomeini’s health began to decline. Imam Khomeini himself became instituted as the Grand Leader for life, and officially decreed as the "Leader of the Revolution. By law, several seats in the Parliament are reserved for minority religions.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/274. Subsequent elections were held to approve of the newly-drafted Constitution.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.5;">Only two weeks after the Shah fled Iran on January 16, 1979, Imam Khomeini returned to Iran triumphantly, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, invited by the anti-Shah revolution which was already in progress.5;">Imam Khomeini expressed support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; in Sahifeh Nour (Vol.5;">Family and descendants

    Imam KhomeiniImam Khomeini and Ayatollah KhameneiRelationship with other Islamic nations

    Velayat-e Faqih

  • A modified form of this Velayat-e Faqih system was adopted after Imam Khomeini and his followers took power, and he became the Islamic Republic's first "Guardian" or Grand Leader.5;">Iran-Iraq War

    velayat-e faqih, the "guardianship of the jurisconsult. A combination of fierce patriot resistance by Iranians and military incompetence by Iraqi forces soon stalled the Iraqi advance and by early 1982 Iran regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion.5;"> 

    Imam Khomeini’s Biography

    During November of 1964, Imam Khomeini made a denunciation of both the Shah and the United States, this time in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted to American military personnel in Iran by the Shah. He viewed certain elements of Western culture as being inherently decadent and a corrupting influence upon the youth.

    Forty Hadiths (Forty Traditions)  

  • Imam KhomeiniRuhollah Mousavi was born to Ayatollah Seyyed Mostafa Musavi and Hajieh Agha Khanum, also called Hajar, in the town of Khomein, about 300 kilometers south of the capital Tehran, Iran, possibly on May 17, 1900 or September 24, 1902.5;">Many of Imam Khomeini's political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution.5;">But because of Islamic ideology of Islamic Republic of Iran, most rulers of other Muslim nations turned against him and supported Iraq in the imposed war against Iran, even though most of Islamic parties and organizations supported his idea.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1. The war continued for another six years, with 450,000 to 950,000 casualties on the Iranian side and the use of chemical weaponry by the Iraqi military.5;">In early 1989, Imam Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the killing of Salman Rushdie, an Indian-born British author.5;">In the meantime, however, Imam Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade.5;">Imam Khomeini spent over 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq. They found the White Revolution a sustainable ideological framework to support a particular relation of domination, in this case the monarchy of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi."

    Logically, in the 1970s, as contrasted with the 1940s, he no longer accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906-1907, an idea that was clearly evidenced by his book Kashf-e Asrar.5;">

    Return to Iran

     

    In 1921, Imam Khomeini commenced his studies in Arak.

  • Ulama) who felt keenly threatened.5;">In January 1963, the Shah announced a six-point program of reform called the White Revolution, an American-inspired package of measures designed to give his regime a liberal and progressive facade. They had seven children, though only five survived infancy, 3 daughters and 2 sons. His ultimate vision was for Islamic nations to converge together into a single unified power, in order to avoid alignment with either side (the West or the East), and he believed that this would happen at some point in the near future.5;">Family and early years

    Life under Imam Khomeini

    In December 1988 (before the fall of the Berlin Wall), Ayatollah Imam Khomeini sent a letter to USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev predicting the fall of Communism and inviting him to study and research Islam. His paternal grandfather was Seyyed Ahmad Musavi, whose third wife, Sakineh, gave birth to Mostafa in 1856.5;">Political thought and legacy

    Grand Leader of Islamic Republic of Iran

    Adab-e Salat (The Disciplines of Prayers)       

  • Imam Khomeini adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist would insure Sharia was properly followed (Velayat-e Faqih).5;">In a speech given to a huge crowd on the first day of returning to Iran, Imam Khomeini attacked the government of Shapoor Bakhtiar promising "I shall punch their teeth in.jpg" width="471" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

    As protest grew, so did Imam Khomeini’s profile and importance.5;"> 

    Imam Khomeini intended to reconstruct Muslim unity and solidarity, so he declared the birth week of Prophet of Islam (the week between 12th to 17th of Rabi'al-Awwal in Islamic Hegira calendar) as the Unity Week.

    Interpretation of Surah Fatihah

  • Jihad-e Akbar (The Greater Struggle)
  • Death and funeral

    Imam Khomeini was considered a Marja-e taqlid to many Muslims, and in Iran was officially addressed as Imam rather than Grand Ayatollah; his supporters adhere to this convention. But Reza Shah transformed the Iranian monarchy into a modern dictatorship.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/278.5;">Imam KhomeiniIn 1929, Imam Khomeini married Batol Saqafi Khomeini, the daughter of a cleric in Tehran.5;">Imam Khomeini led an ascetic lifestyle, being deeply interested in mysticism, and was against the accumulation of land and wealth by the clergy.

  • Opposition to capitulation

    Life for religious minorities has been mixed under Imam Khomeini and his successors.

    Early Years

    Works:

    • Saddam Hussein, Iraq's secular Arab nationalist Ba'athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran's weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran's adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan and undermine attempts by Iranian Islamic revolutionaries to incite the Shia majority of his country.5;">Interpretation of Forces of Reason and Negligence Tradition 
    • Serr al-Salat (Secrets of Prayers)
    • Although outside powers supplied arms to both sides during the war, the West (America in particular) became alarmed by the possibility of the Islamic Revolution spreading throughout the oil-exporting Persian Gulf oil and began to supply Iraq with whatever help it needed. Gorbachev

      As the costs of the eight-year war mounted, Imam Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. After graduation, he taught Islamic jurisprudence (Sharia), Islamic philosophy and mysticism (Irfan) for many years and wrote numerous books on these subjects.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1. His sons entered into religious life. Later in October 1965 he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayed until being forced to leave in 1978, after then-Vice President Saddam Hossein forced him out (the two countries would fight a bitter eight year war 1980-1988 only a year after the beginning of Imam Khomeini’s leadership in Iran and the start of Saddam Hussein’s term in Iraq) after which he went to Neauphle le Château in France.5;">On February 11, Imam Khomeini declared a provisional government.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/281.5;">Also this was a turning point in political viewpoint of Islam.jpg" width="612" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

    • Imam Khomeini became a Marja in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi.5;"> 

      Imam Khomeini first became politically active in 1962. In his historical letter he wrote: "It is clear to everyone that Communism should henceforth be sought in world museums of political history.5;">Life in exile

      Letter to Mikhail S.

  • Imam Khomeini

 

That the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God (Sharia), which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life.5;">Following Imam Khomeini's public denunciation of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi as a "wretched miserable man" and his arrest, on June 5, 1963 (Khordad 15, on the Iranian calendar), three days of major riots erupted throughout Iran with nearly 400 killed. Later, when he was 15, his mother and aunt died in the same year.5;">This system of clerical rule is necessary to prevent injustice: corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam and Sharia law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non-Muslim foreign powers.

Since Sharia, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia (Islamic jurists are such people), and that the country's ruler should be a faqih who "surpasses all others in knowledge" of Islamic law and justice, as well as having intelligence and administrative ability. Imam Khomeini's maternal grandfather was Mirza Ahmad Mojtahed-e Khonsari, a high-ranking cleric in central Iran whose Fatwa for banning usage of Tobacco in opposition to a monopoly granted by Shah to a British company, led to cancellation of the concession.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1. His now well-known book, Kashf-e Asrar (Discovery of Secrets) was a point by point refutation of Asrar-e Hezar Saleh (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran's leading anti-clerical historian, Ahmad Kasravi. Along with the position of the Grand Leader, the constitution also requires that a president be elected every four years, but only those candidates approved indirectly by the Council of Guardians may run for the office."

Interpretation of Dawn Pray

  • Hajj
  • .

    Following Imam Khomeini’s demise, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei came to be selected on June 4, 1989 by the Assembly of Experts to be his successor, in accordance with the Constitution.

    Introduction

    Under Imam Khomeini's rule, Sharia (Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women. The clergies had supported Shia monarchy since establishment of Safavids and this was the main source of legitimacy of monarchs.jpg" width="640" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

    Imam Khomeini's father was murdered when he was five months old, and he was raised by his mother and one of his aunts. He was a Seyyed from a religious family that are descendants of Prophet Mohammad, through the seventh Imam, (Imam Mousa Kazem). He was keenly interested in philosophy and ethics.5;">Imam KhomeiniImam Khomeini's grandson Seyyed Hassan Khomeini, son of the late Seyyed Ahmad Khomeini, is also a cleric and the trustee of Imam Khomeini's shrine.5;">Early Political Activity

    In early 1970 Imam Khomeini gave a lecture series in Najaf on Islamic Government which later was published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (velayat-e faqih). He also decreed that the Nowruz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (March 21, 1963) be cancelled as a sign of protest against government policies.5;">With what many believe was the encouragement of the United States, Saudi Arabia and other countries, Iraq soon launched a full scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran-Iraq War (September 1980 - August 1988)."

    Tahrir al-Wasilah

  • Imam Khomeini's definition of democracy existed within an Islamic framework. We would like independence.5;">In this time he could represent his religious-political ideas openly. Imam Khomeini was kept under house arrest for 8 months and was released in 1964. Through the ballot box, over 98% voted in favor of replacing the monarchy with an Islamic Republic.

    Imam Ayatollah Seyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was a Muslim cleric and Marja, and the political leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran which overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.khamenei. He received his early education at home and at the local school, under the supervision of Mullah Abdul-Qassem and Sheikh Jaffar, and was under the guardianship of his elder brother, Ayatollah Pasandideh, until he was 18 years old.5;">Imam KhomeiniEstablishment of new government

    After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Imam Khomeini died of cancer on Saturday, June 3, 1989, at the age of 89.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/282.

    Imam KhomeiniImam KhomeiniRushdie Fatwa

     

    Opposition to White Revolution

    Imam Khomeini believed that Iran should strive towards self-reliance.5;">Although during this scholarly phase of his life Imam Khomeini was not politically active, the nature of his studies, teachings, and writings revealed that he firmly believed from the beginning in political activism by clerics.5;">Conservative estimates put the welcoming crowd of Iranians at least three million.